The “United Nations Security Council,” also known as the “UNSC,” has always been one of the foremost bodies that provides solutions to extreme security issues and fights to prevent wars in Europe and many other parts of the world. For decades, it existed primarily as one of the six known bodies that make up the United Nations, and its primary purpose is to provide or ensure international peace. While it has 15 members, only five of them are referred to or regarded as permanent members. These permanent members are sometimes said to have “veto power” in the UN’s sub-organization. China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are among them.
The above-mentioned countries are referred to as permanent members because, unlike the ten other countries elected for two-year terms, they are always present regardless of the situation or time. As previously stated, they have veto power over any resolution that is to be passed or any conclusion that is to be reached in the security council. This veto power applies regardless of the level of international support the draft being discussed at the time, and its terms never expire. When these words are carefully examined, they tend to present the impression that the world appears to be strategically placed under the wings of these nations in terms of security. When it comes to security issues, the world’s nations rely heavily on these five countries.
The existence of these countries as permanent members has no bearing on the position of other countries that have been elected multiple times. Because of the number of times they have been elected, countries such as Japan and Brazil appear to be permanent members at first glance. Brazil, for example, has been elected to the council at least ten times, while Japan has been elected eleven times in recent years. The number of years these countries use does not necessarily make them permanent; there are still only five permanent members, as explained below.
To understand why these five countries are permanent members and how this position came about, we must first look at the history of the council itself. It all began after the events of World War II, after millions of people died and Europe’s empires had crumbled, and new countries were constantly on the rise, with existing ones seeking independence. Several ideologies began to emerge, particularly the presence of political ideas such as communism, which quickly caused a schism between nations who loved what it meant and those who simply couldn’t stand it. This divide and its escalating issues necessitated the establishment of a council, one that would include international or global superpowers (great nations), that would come together in defense of international peace and oversee the security of nations.
Of course, the famous “League of Nations” had already been established at the time, but they desired something different because the world was divided in ways that they believed could lead to another gruesome war. They devised a strategy and settled on adding only four members: the United States, the United Kingdom, Soviet Russia, and the Republic of China. These nations appeared to be the best options at the time, until the USSR began to express its reservations. It claimed at the time that the countries involved were mostly allies of the United States of America, a country with which it was constantly at odds due to ideological differences. As a result, it requested that at least one neutral member be present in the council. Initially, they wanted to add Brazil as the fifth member, but this was rejected because Brazil was too closely aligned with the West, as well as the fact that Brazil didn’t want to join in the first place.
On the other hand, the USSR was not the only nation in the council that had disagreements with the other nations. The United Kingdom expressed its concerns as well, stating that it was the only member from Western Europe, which seems like a logical reason to be skeptical because it would imply that they would always be the ones to settle the bills to protect their entire continent, which could lead to them going bankrupt. France, on the other hand, was unable to join or even be considered because of the ease with which the Germans occupied it during the war. It was thought that it was too weak to be in charge of the world’s security if it couldn’t even protect its own borders. However, due to UK complaints, the US was forced to consider France. The United Kingdom proposed that France be reinstated as a major power and admitted to the UN Security Council as such. Thankfully, France’s involvement also calmed the USSR, which believed at the time that France was the only European country that wasn’t completely aligned with the US. As a result, the United Nations Security Council of five permanent members was established.
Despite the fact that significant changes are said to be taking place in the council. The first was when China was kicked out until it resolved its civil war issues, and the second was when the USSR disintegrated and Russia took its place. It is easy to see why there are five permanent members, given that these powers are regarded as superpowers with exceptional ability to secure their borders. One of the criteria appears to be that a country must be a security behemoth, and the five permanent members are exactly that.